Reproductive Disorders

Reproductive failure is the most common cause for culling sows from production herds. The reproductive disorders failure can affect individual pigs, but can also be a farm problem. Any region of the pig’s genital tract can be diseased, with the uterus being the most frequently affected organ.  Other less common infectious causes of reproductive problems are brucellosis, hog cholera, swine influenza, encephalomyocarditis, streptococcus suis, erysipelas and parasites.

Reproductive Disorders: Anaphrodisias;

When the sow does not come on heat


1. No heat signs; this could be caused by low body weight due to poor feeding, overweight, mineral deficiency, intestinal worms, chronic diseases, the animal has just given birth, heavy infestation with parasites.


  • Improve feeding of mineral rich feeds
  • Regularly de-worm your animals
  • Allow the female to stay with the boar


  • Gilts should not be treated at all because they may show anaphrodidias after every litter, if this hormone is used
  • Sows should be treated on the same day as weaning, and in very severe cases, 3 weeks after weaning
  • Repeat treatment is of no use

Reproductive Disorders : Leptospirosis;


  • Fever, anorexia, diarrhoea, bloody urine, nervous symptoms caused by meningitis
  • Abortion in last trimester
  • In sows which are affected later, weak piglets are born
  • Mummified and macerated foetuses are common in the litters
  • Infertility associated with venereal spread may be responsible for repeat breeders

Prevention and treatment;

  • Elimination of mite and rats and other rodents
  • Vaccination and hygienic measures. Vaccines are not available for all types of the diseases and vaccination may not prevent body urine
  • Treat all sows with injection or streptomycin before serving
  • Use antibiotics especially streptomycin for all ages

Reproductive Disorders : Brucellosis;


  •  Anorexia, fever, stiff legs, occasional lameness, early abortion ( returns to oestrus 5-8 weeks after service as a result of infection of service)
  • Infection later in pregnancy gives rise to litter with mummified, still born or weak piglets
  • Bloody vulva discharge and endometriasis
  • Retained placentas
  • Boars usually develop orchitis (inflamation of one or both testicles) and epididymitis within seven days of infection
  • The testicles are swollen and painful and permanent sterility can be the result

Prevention and cure:

  •  Prevention is based on hygienic measures and purchase of stock from clean herds only
  • Never treat by antibiotics
  • No treatment/vaccination is 100% effective
  • Slaughter all animals and do restocking. This should be after one month.

Reproductive Disorders : Uterine Prolapsed;


  • The appearance of the uterus outside the vulva

Prevention and treatment:

  •  Uterine prolapsed reduction is often not possible since it is very traumatic and the very best therapy is to amputate the whole uterus. However 50% of sows do not survive this operation, therefore slaughter should be considered.

Reproductive Disorders : Mastitis;

Bacterial infection cases an inflammation of the mammary organ and results in changes in milk production. These bacteria enter the wounds in the udder.


  • Swollen, hot and painful udder
  • Absence or reduction of milk in the affected udder
  • Sow refuses to suckle her piglets. As a result, piglets squeal due to hunger
  • Sow has depression and often fever


  • Provide adequate bedding
  • Keep pig pens clean, dry and free of sharp objects, clip milk teeth of baby pigs


  • Gently massage the affected udder with lukewarm water
  • Do not allow the young to suck milk from infected sow
  • Separate sow from piglets and reduce access to teats (allow a few piglets to suckle at a time). If possible, foster piglets tp lactating mothers
  • Use antibiotics. Inject penicillin-streptomycin into the muscle of hip or neck

Reproductive Disorders: Endometritis (bacteria);


  • Vulva discharge of virginal or uterine origin during urination
  • In case of metrititis, fever and agalactia may occur

Prevention and treatment:

  • Antimicrobial by injection or locally by inigation of the uterus and vagina, oxytocin can be given to stimulate uteric contractions once or twice a day.
  • Hygiene

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