Pigs need a dry bed, and protection from extreme temperature and sunburn. Minimum requirements apply for space, fresh air, and hygiene, access to feed and water, and accommodation. These conditions should not predispose the pigs to illness or injury.
Rationale:-Pig houses in the most important consideration for new pig project ; It is unfortunate that many new pig farmers do not consult well on pig houses before embarking on construction. It is not enough to copy a pig house you have come across. New pig farmers do not understand that pig houses are constructed according to how pigs behave. The same reason that zero-grazing units are built in a particular way to make cleaning easier and have the cows comfortable.
The main thing to note is that pigs like to sleep in a dark area but prefer to dung in the lighter space. A good sized pig pen is about 10ft by 15ft of this 10ft by 10ft is roofed while 10ft by 5ft is not roofed. To make cleaning easier the door into the pen is in the open dunging area. This makes removal of manure easier without having to pass through the sleeping area. It is good to have a veranda between pig pens such that you have pens on the right and left side. The veranda and the pig sleeping area will be roofed while the open dunging area at the back is not roofed. There should be no door leading into the pig pens from the veranda. In the pig pens the feed trough runs along the whole length of the pen next to the veranda. The height of the pen partitions is only 31/2ft and the workman should be able to put feeds in the trough without having to go into the pens.
The whole pig pens floor should slope towards the dunging area. The water trough should be at the dunging area. Any water spilling from the water trough should drain out together with any urine. There should be a cemented drainage outside the pig pen to drain away from the pig house. Make water troughs in such a way that pigs are not able to sleep in the trough and spill out the water. Automatic drinking nipples help avoid this as they ensure that pigs have access to clean drinking water adlib without any wastage.
The furrowing pens need to be modified in such a way that there is a creep feed area where piglets are able to access starter meal away from the mother.
There is need to have guard rails in every farrowing house. This prevents the sow from crushing the piglets against the walls at sucking time.
NB-The minimum economical pig unit should comprise of 10 breeding sows and one boar.
For such 20 pens will be needed.
What to consider:-
- Pig pens must be kept warm.
- Pens must be kept as dry as possible to avoid multiplication of pathogens.
- Enough air circulation must be allowed at all times.
- The units must be kept clean and hygienic all the time. Unit should be cleaned at least twice a day and the waste disposed correctly in the biogas unit or composting area.
- Enough space must be allocated per pig. Avoid over stocking in cubicles.
- Select well drained site.
- Pig houses to be accessible by vehicles.
- Wind direction to be considered so that wind does not blow towards people’s houses.
- Do not site unit next to neighbors’ houses.
- Pig unit to be set apart from other livestock.
- Have good perimeter fence for security.
- Have disinfection dip for vehicles at gate.